HEART DISEASE

Wednesday, November 06, 2019

Ischemic Stroke

Stroke is defined as abrupt onset of a focal neurological deficit lasting more than 24 hours. It is also called cerebrovascular accident (CVA) or apoplexy.

The majority of strokes occur when blood vessels to the brain become narrowed or clogged with fatty deposits called plaque. This cuts off blood flow to brain cells. A stroke caused by lack of blood reaching part of the brain is called an ischemic stroke.

Ischemic stroke is a heterogeneous disease and occurs due to a multitude of underlying pathologic processes. Around 85% of strokes are ischemic strokes, which happen when a blockage cuts off the blood supply to the brain. Brain cells start to die quickly after their blood supply is cut off, but this damage can be limited in many cases if treatment can be provided very quickly (within a few hours).

Some conditions can cause blood clots to form in the heart, which can then move through the bloodstream up into the brain. This is called an embolism.

Neurological symptoms and signs of an ischemic stroke usually appear suddenly, but less frequently, they occur in a progressive manner (stroke-in-progress). The typical presentation is the sudden onset of hemiparesis in an older person. Symptoms and signs vary depending on the location of the occlusion and the extent of the collateral flow.

Hypertension, carotid artery stenosis, atrial fibrillation and certain other cardiac conditions, ciga-rette smoking, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, sickle cell disease, poor diet, physical inactivity, and obesity are well-established risk factors for ischemic stroke.
Ischemic Stroke

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