Fibromuscular dysplasia is a nonatherosclerotic, noninflammatory vascular disease that affects any and/or all the three layers in the cephalic, renal and both extracranial and intracranial arteries (particularly the bilateral internal carotid arteries).
On angiography the vessels have a corrugated, complicated or ‘string-of-beads’ appearance. The dilated segments are larger than normal, whereas the lumen of the narrow segments is reduced to 40% of normal.
The exact cause remains unknown although genetic predisposition, trauma, hormonal factors, growth factors, underlying, connective tissue disease, skeletal factors and metabolic and immunological factors have all been proposed as cause of fibromuscular dysplasia.
The increased incidence of fibromuscular dysplasia in women as compared with men suggests a possible hormonal or genetic influence. Some authors have proposed the sex difference to be related to immune system functioning, but overt inflammation, as is observed in most classic autoimmune disease is histological lacking.
Aneurysms and dissection are not uncommon complications of fibromuscular dysplasia. Aneurysms can rupture, causing severe life-threatening bleeding. Such aneurysms are usually treated surgically or can sometimes be embolized using endovascular techniques.
The most popular articles
Mangosteen are the most valued part of the plant Garcinia mangostana and is famous for the remarkably pleasant flavor. Mangosteen contains a...
In normal circumstances, resting pulmonary artery systolic pressure ranges from 18 to 20 mmHg. Pulmonary arterial hypertension is defined ...
Studies have shown that higher levels of type-B LDL particles (as opposed to type-A LDL particles) are associated with health problems, incl...
What is arteriosclerosis? Arteriosclerosis is literally means hardening of the arteries, includes all kinds of diseases that damage the arte...
Heart failure is a syndrome identified by well-defined symptoms and hemodynamic findings caused by an abnormality of cardiac function that r...